Here you will find a compilation of frequently asked technical questions.
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Questions and answers
To ensure our customers can easily get started with fluid analysis, we have developed a support page. There you will find descriptions of the parameters and questions from other customers. You can also ask questions about this yourself. At the moment this support page is only available in English – we are currently working on a German version.
Many people are aware that the pH value is related to acids and bases and that it is important for e.g. water quality, food, aquariums or even plants. The exact meaning will be explained in the course of this article. In simple terms, the pH value indicates how acidic or basic a solution or liquid is. Here, solutions with a pH value of 7 are referred to as neutral, with a value below 7 pH as acidic, and with a value above 7 pH as basic (or alkaline).
Electrodes with liquid electrolyte solution (pH, redox) can contain one or more diaphragms. These diaphragms are used to establish electrical contact between the reference electrode and the sample solution without contaminating the electrolyte with the sample. In addition to the types of diaphragms, the arrangement also plays a major role.
Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) or redox is a measurement that indicates how oxidizing or reducing a liquid is. For example, water can be moderately oxidizing (like carbonated water), highly oxidizing (like chlorinated water or hydrogen peroxide solution), or reducing (like an environment where anaerobic microbes are active). In short, ORP is a measure of the cleanliness of water and its ability to break down impurities.
There are several methods by which dissolved oxygen (DO) in water can be measured. First, there are wet chemical techniques in which a water sample is collected and then subjected to a chemical reaction used to determine oxygen content. Second, conventional membrane DO sensors are available in which a probe operating on electrochemical principles is inserted into the water to read the DO level. Finally, newer optical sensors are available that provide fast, continuous measurement without many of the shortcomings of conventional membrane sensors.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is oxygen gas (O2) dissolved in water. Gases in the atmosphere such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide naturally dissolve in water to some degree. Like salt or sugar, these gases are invisible in water once they have dissolved.
With a suitable instrument, electrical conductivity (EC) measurements are relatively quick and easy. EC measures the ability of water to conduct electricity, which in turn depends on the ion concentrations in the solution. For this reason, EC provides useful information about the solution and can be used to estimate total dissolved solids (TDS).
The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is measured by inserting an ORP sensor into water. This can be either a pocket meter or a meter with a separate electrode. The meter then reads the electrical potential (voltage) from the sensor and may make a correction or offset before reporting the value. The specified values, which can be positive or negative, are usually given in millivolts (mV).